L. I. Iezzoni and V. A. Freedman, “Turning the Disability Tide: the Importance of Definitions,” Journal of the American Medical Association 299(3), (2008), pp. 332–334.
Explores the historic meanings and definitions of disability including those of the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Social Security Administration, and the American Medical Association, and notes that the Institute of Medicine recommends adopting the conceptual framework set forth by the World Health Organization in the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps.
World Health Organization–International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health–ICF
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, known more commonly as ICF, is a framework for measuring health and disability at both individual and population levels. The ICF takes into account the social aspects of disability and does not interpret disability only as a “medical” or ”biological” dysfunction.